The Acquisition of the Charles Tiplady Diary | Barbara Riding | Introduction to the Charles Tiplady Diary | Bibliography

 In order to access the Charles Tiplady Diary transcribed by David Hughes plus pdfs which follow each annual entry​ please select the relevant year/s . 

1839 - 1849​ | 1850 - 1859​ | 1860 -1869​ | 1870 - 1873​

N.B. The pdfs contain David Hughes’ transcription of the diary, footnotes​ and annotations which could not be included on the website.  
It is particularly​ 
recommended to check the pdf in relation to financial tables & lists.

 The Acquisition of the Charles Tiplady Diar​​y 

A fascinating story lies behind the acquisition of the Tiplady Diary.
Charles Tiplady who worked as a printer and bookseller in Blackburn for more than 40 years, kept a diary from 1839 -1873.  Extracts from his diary were published in the Blackburn Times by the editor, well known local historian William Alexander Abram, but the diary had never been published in its entirety.
The diary disappeared for many years and no-one believed that it would ever be seen in Blackburn again.  That is until 1999 when an auctioneer who was overseeing a house clearance in Derbyshire noticed an old ledger.  A bureau that was to be sold had been cleared of its contents.  The ledger was amongst them, ready to be thrown out.  The auctioneer picked it up and on closer inspection could see that it might have some significance for Blackburn.  He contacted Blackburn Museum and by some miracle it was the long lost Tiplady diary.
The diary was going to come up for auction on 28th January 2000, in Nottingham, and moves were made to ensure that it returned to Blackburn.  Eventually it was agreed that the Library, Museum and Blackburn Local History Society would pool their resources and put in a joint bid for the diary.  Nick Harling, the Keeper of Social History at Blackburn Museum was sent to the auction and secured the diary for the town.
The Lancashire Record Office were consulted as to how best to preserve the diary, which was in reasonable condition despite its age.  It was decided that the original copy of the diary would be retained by the Museum, with a microfilm copy made that could be used at the Library.
The diary was considered to be such a treasure that the Museum planned an exhibition with the diary as the centrepiece.  This was "Tiplady's Blackburn" which ran for 2 months in Autumn 2001 and was highly acclaimed.  The exhibition featured resources from both the Museum and the Library which illustrated the Blackburn that Tiplady would have known.
Members of the Local History Society, and in particular Mrs. Barbara Riding, a Tiplady enthusiast, have undertaken the arduous task of transcribing the diary from the microfilm.
It is believed that an earlier diary was in existence, but again it has never been seen.  How wonderful it would be if it too came to light in the future.


Barbara Riding​

Barbara Riding (left) with Richard Tiplady (Descendant of Charles Tiplady) & Cllr. Kate Hollern (right)​ in 2004
26th May 1930 – 9th February 2023 
Tribute & Dedication
Barbara Riding was a well-known local historian who loved Blackburn and enjoyed learning about and researching history, especially local history, with a passionate enthusiasm. She was a founder member of Blackburn Local History Society, a Friend of Blackburn Museum & Art Gallery​ and a library member to name but a few of the organisations she supported.

Barbara was one of those people who willingly shared the results of her research in a variety of ways.  She has left her imprint through the many articles she submitted to Blackburn Local History Society’s Journal & Newsletters, the number of articles she allowed the Library to publish on www.cottontown.org, the countless lectures she gave throughout the years and information supplied to the ‘Looking Back’ section of The Lancashire Telegraph, and, with gratitude by the people who were referred to her because of her specialist knowledge in certain areas. Barbara was always happy to help, and, even in her later years, she noted that was never too tired for ‘history’.  Her knowledge of Dorothy Whipple’s life in Blackburn and Woodfold Estate was particularly helpful.  

Barbara visited Blackburn Library about ten years ago with a determined intention to inform the Community History team that someone should complete the transcription of the Charles Tiplady Diary (1839-1873) which members of Blackburn Local History Society had started after the diary had been bought at auction by Blackburn Museum & Art Gallery​, Blackburn Central Library and Blackburn Local History Society in January, 2000.  Just for reference, the edition which was published on Cotton Town during the intervening years was the heavily abridged W. A. Abrams transcription. The Abram version was originally published during the late 1880s in ‘The Blackburn Standard’. Barbara completely understood the importance of the diary in relation to Blackburn’s history, and, as a wider social history resource.

At some point during 2018, Barbara was delighted to be introduced to one of Blackburn Library’s Community History Volunteers, David Hughes.  Barbara and David met on a couple of occasions in the Library in order to chat about the project. It has taken a while and the enforced lock-down due to the Covid pandemic ensured that David completed the task!

It seems only fitting that David Hughes’ transcript, footnotes and annotations of the Charles Tiplady diary are dedicated and published as a tribute to Barbara Riding in recognition for all her work, encouragement and the support she has given to so many people interested in local history over many years. 

January 2024

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​​Introduction to the Charles Tiplady Diary

ODNB Oxford Dictionary of National Biography
OED Oxford English Dictionary

On 10 September 1894 Edmund Abram returned Charles Tiplady’s diary to Charles’ eldest son, Thomas. Edmund Abram probably returned the diary on behalf of his father, William A. Abram, the editor of the Blackburn Standard and local historian. William Abram must have borrowed the diary from Thomas in 1887 or 1888 because he published a transcription of the diary in the ‘Local History Column’ of the Blackburn Standard from 20 October 1888. Abram severely edited his transcription, emphasising the many deaths Charles recorded. Thomas Tiplady died in Bolton in 1921. After that the diary was lost. A later Blackburn historian, George Miller, regretted the loss of the diary in a short biography of Charles Tiplady published in his book, Blackburn Worthies of Yesterday, published in 1959. In 1999, the diary was rediscovered. During a house clearance in Nottingham in 1999, an auctioneer noticed an old ledger amongst the contents of a bureau that were being thrown away. When he looked, he found that it included a diary kept by someone from Blackburn. The auctioneer contacted Blackburn Museum and in January 2000, the Museum, Library and Blackburn Local History Society bought the diary, with the assistance of a V & A Purchase Fund Grant. After over a century Tiplady’s diary returned to Blackburn. In 2001, it was displayed in Blackburn Museum and a booklet published giving details of the diary, Tiplady’s life and Blackburn during Tiplady’s lifetime (1)

Charles Tiplady began his diary on 15 August 1838, the date of his marriage to his second wife, Mary Callis. In his first entry, Tiplady covered, briefly, his first marriage to Mary Heaton who died in February 1838, his brief relationship with Betty Alston and his move as a Sunday School teacher from Grimshaw Park to Thunder Alley. Tiplady continued his diary until September 1873, shortly before his death in October of that year. The diary survives as a single, bound volume. Some early pages are damaged but most survived in good condition. The diary is part confessional, part written with the intention of being read by others, and part aide-memoire. Charles’ handwriting is generally clear, although he did have an occasional tendency to scrawl. His spelling was good, and the longer entries well written, indicating he had received a good level of education. Many of the entries were brief but some were longer, for example, an account of the violence during the General Election in July 1841, a description of a trip to London by railway in May 1844, and a visit to the Lake District with the Mayor of Blackburn in August 1862. Tiplady’s main themes were his family, business, religion, voluntary societies, politics, and death.

Tiplady was born in Blackburn on 23 June 1808. He was the sixth of ten children of Thomas and Elizabeth, née Lomax. Thomas, who was a tallow chandler, was born in Blackburn in 1778. His father, Samuel, who was also a tallow chandler, was born in Fewston, a village between Skipton and Harrogate in Yorkshire. Samuel moved to Blackburn after marrying Sarah Petty in Ripon, Yorkshire, in May 1777. Sarah died in 1779, after the birth of their daughter, also Sarah. Samuel moved to Bolton before 1794 where he married Margaret Hampson. Although other Tipladys lived in Bolton during the first half of the nineteenth century, none appear to be children of Samuel and Margaret. Charles mentioned no Bolton Tipladys in his diary. Thomas did not move with his father, probably because he was serving his apprenticeship as a tallow chandler. Charles’ mother, Elizabeth was the daughter of James Lomax, a watchmaker, and Mary, née Margerison, about whom little is known. James Lomax was born in Blackburn in 1749 to Samuel and Ann, whose surname is unknown. Tiplady claimed that the Lomaxes were an old Blackburn family, but details of Samuel Lomax’s place of birth have not been found. The Lomaxes had been Blackburn residents for at least sixty years before Tiplady’s birth. Samuel Lomax’s trade is not known but he did own two shops and four cottages in Blackburn when he died.

According to Abram, Tiplady was educated in Blackburn at the National School in Thunder Alley. According to his own account, Tiplady began his apprenticeship as a printer with Thomas Rogerson in January 1823, completing it seven years later in January 1830. Originally, Thomas Rogerson established his printing business in Blackburn after moving from Preston. In the mid 1810s, Rogerson moved to Manchester where he was the first proprietor of the radical newspaper, the Manchester Observer (2).  By the end of the 1810s, Rogerson had returned to Blackburn where he re-established his business. According to Edwin Holmes, in an article in the Blackburn Times, Rogerson began a newspaper, the Blackburn Journal, in 1822 of which Tiplady’s father, Thomas, was the first editor (3).  No other evidence of this has been found but, if true, it might explain why Tiplady became a printer rather than following his father’s trade of tallow chandler.

In May 1830, soon after completing his apprenticeship, Tiplady set up as a printer and bookseller with his brother, William, who was a year older. According to Charles, their father helped them start their business from an inheritance. Thomas Tiplady died in August 1830 which explains why Charles and William’s mother, Elizabeth, became a partner in their business (4).  Elizabeth left the business by October 1835; Charles and William continued together until William’s death in 1844. After William’s death, Charles continued alone until around 1870 when his second son by his marriage to Mary Callis, William Callis, joined him as a partner. William Callis continued the business after Charles’ death. When he died in 1890, the business ceased trading (5).  Tiplady’s business premises were on Church Street, near St. Mary church, now the cathedral. The business printed a wide range of materials for public bodies and private businesses, including Blackburn’s Register of Electors, and for organisations with which Tiplady was involved, such as the Oddfellows and Blackburn Philanthropic Burial Society. From 1834, firstly with his brother, then alone, Charles published a local almanac, which included a record of events for the previous year and improvements to the town, including details of new buildings. 

Charles’ diary gives the impression that he did not have a close relationship with his other siblings, apart from William. Charles claimed that he, and his other siblings, became estranged from their eldest brother, James Lomax (1801-70) after the death of their mother in 1852. As the eldest, James inherited a share of their maternal grandfather’s estate when the others did not. According to Abram, James ‘was as strong a Radical as his brother Charles was Tory’ (6).  Like his brother, he did not follow his father or grandfather’s trade of tallow chandler. He became a mechanic. Charles’ younger brother, John Margerison (1810-80), became a schoolteacher and had moved to Bury before he married in 1840. Charles may not have been close to John, but he entrusted part of the education of two of his sons, William, and Richard, to John and his first wife. John emigrated to the United States in June 1869 with his second wife and son but did not stay long because he and his family were recorded as back in Blackburn in the 1871 census. John was no longer a teacher, but a tinplate worker. His only child, John Douglas, did emigrate to the United States by the end of the 1880s and stayed. Charles had four surviving sisters during the period of his diary: Ann (1805-76), Elizabeth (1809-84), Margaret (1811-69) and Jane (1813-59). None married and all, except Ann, lived with their mother in Ainsworth Street until her death in 1852. All continued to live in Ainsworth Street with Ann returning later in her life. All were dressmakers/milliners except Ann for whom no trade was listed in the censuses. Charles did have some contact with his sisters while their mother was alive but he recorded little about them after that. Overall, Charles’ main concern for his siblings was managing their inheritances.

Having served his apprenticeship and established himself in business, Tiplady married for the first time in December 1832. His bride was Mary Heaton, who was the daughter of James and Dorothy Heaton. James Heaton was probably a bookkeeper from Brookhouse in Blackburn who died in 1821. Charles had two children with Mary, Maria Anne, who lived only from 1835 to 1837, and Thomas, who lived between 1833 and 1921. Thomas inherited the diary. Mary died in February 1838, while her mother, Dorothy, died in December 1839. After that Charles appeared to have no further contact with the Heaton family. After a brief relationship with Betty Alston, Charles began the courtship of Mary Callis for seven or eight months. They married on 15 August 1839, the date on which he began his diary. Mary was one of nine children of William Callis and his first wife, Elizabeth, neé Holt. Elizabeth died in 1812. William then married Alice Riley with whom he had a further six children. William, who had moved to Blackburn from Nottinghamshire, was a grocer and provisions dealer in Salford, Blackburn. He died in 1821 when his second wife, Alice, continued the business until her death in 1846. Unlike his first wife’s family, the Callises played an important part in Charles’ diary, including problems associated with the inheritance of William Callis’s property after the Alice’s death. Charles and his second wife, Mary, had eight children, six of whom survived into adulthood. His wife and children also played an important part in Charles’ diary although Charles recorded few details of routine family life. Charles did write about some arguments with Mary, which turned violent, during the early years of their marriage. He wrote about some of Mary’s illnesses, both after childbirth and later in life, but no details of her daily life. When he recorded his activities during a week, everything was connected to his public affairs.

Charles had seven children who survived into adulthood from his two marriages, Thomas, from his first marriage, Charles Lomax, William Callis, Richard, Frances Louisa, Henry and Esther. Six children had at least part of their education away from Blackburn, Charles at Whalley Grammar School, William at first with Charles at Whalley Grammar School then with his younger brother, Richard, with Charles’ brother, John Margerison Tiplady and his wife, who were both schoolteachers in Bury. Frances and Esther, when they were in their teens, went to Spalding in Lincolnshire where Frances trained as a governess. Charles eldest and youngest sons, Richard, and Henry, were educated in Blackburn. Thomas, William, and Henry served apprenticeships under Charles. Thomas and Henry moved away after completing their apprenticeships, but William returned to become a partner with his father. Charles Lomax became an apprentice at Brookhouse Mill before setting up his own accountancy business. Richard moved to Brazil in 1858 where he served an apprenticeship as a surveyor before becoming an engineer on the railway at Bahia. Frances, after training as a governess, returned to Blackburn to become a music teacher, before marrying in 1874. Esther worked as an assistant in her father’s and brother’s business. Later she moved to Brazil to help her brother Richard raise his children before marrying in Bahia.

Charles managed his wider family’s legal and financial affairs. Whether the family entrusted their affairs to Charles or whether he assumed responsibility is not known. Even after the death of his elder brother, William, in 1844, Charles was not the oldest son. James Lomax was seven years older. During the year after Mrs Elizabeth Tiplady’s death in October 1852, Charles invested her legacies on behalf of his siblings. From this investment each sibling was to be paid a monthly dividend. Charles’ management of family affairs continued in 1856 when, after 42 years, the inheritances of James Lomax, their maternal grandfather, were settled. Charles negotiated with the solicitors before agreeing what should be paid to the families of both James Lomax’s daughters, the Tiplady and Ratcliffe families. However, in 1857, the sale of James Lomax’s substantial property holding of 16 houses and 1 shop around Blackburn did not seem to involve Charles. It is notable that Charles continued to owe his sisters part of their legacies in both 1860 and 1861. 
Although family matters feature prominently in Charles’ diary, he hardly referred to daily family life. Whenever he recorded his daily or weekly activities, Charles focused on business and public affairs; a world reserved for men only. Not only did Charles run a printing business, first with his older brother, William, then alone, but also, he held shares in other companies in whose business he participated. Assessing the extent of the printing business is difficult. Occasionally, Charles complained about business being slow but, overall, his business grew. In 1851, Charles employed a man, 3 boys and one of his sons, but, by 1871, the business had grown to employ 8 men, 2 women, one of whom was his daughter, Esther, and 4 boys. This workforce included apprentices whom Charles trained. Charles was an important local tradesman by his printing business alone but his shareholding and involvement in other companies added to his importance. Over the course of the diary, Tiplady held shares in the Over Darwen Gas Company, Blackburn Water Works Company, and the East Lancashire Railway Company. Also, he played an important part in establishing the Victoria Mining Company in Clitheroe. Of these, the most important was the Over Darwen Gas Company, in which Charles held shares from 1843, and for whom he was a board member from at least 1850 until it was sold to Darwen Local Board of Health in 1872. He was an active shareholder in the other companies, participating in shareholder meetings, often speaking at length, and asking pertinent questions, usually about financial matters. Particularly, he lobbied on behalf of the East Lancashire Railway Company.

Alongside his business affairs, Charles partook fully in the changing political world of mid-nineteenth century Britain. He was a founder member and officer of the local Conservative party before becoming a local councillor and, finally, an alderman. Blackburn became a parliamentary borough under the Parliamentary Reform Act of 1832, electing two MPs, but it was not until 1851 that Blackburn became a Corporate Borough. Modern political parties began to come into existence during the mid to late 1830s with highly localised operations aligned to national issues. Local Conservative Associations became a feature of political life from the mid 1830s, with most constituencies having one. Many towns had Operative Conservative Associations, of which Blackburn was one. The central role of the associations was to ensure voters were registered annually and to defend registrations that were challenged (7).  Friends of the Conservative cause held a dinner in Blackburn in February 1835 with the Operative Conservative Association formed in November of the same year (8).  Charles was president by November 1836 (9).  As an important participant in local Conservative politics, Charles gave personal accounts of the parliamentary elections in Blackburn, such as a report of the violence after the 1841 election. Despite being very active in the local Conservative party and an Improvement Commissioner from 1842, after a new Blackburn Improvement Act was passed in 1841, Charles did not stand for election for Blackburn council until 1857. He failed in his first attempt, blaming his failure on corruption by the opposition. In 1860, he was elected for St. John’s ward. He became very active, speaking regularly and chairing committees. He was re-elected in 1863, and, in 1865, was chosen as an alderman. Charles did not reach the pinnacle in local politics by being chosen as mayor, probably because of his ill health from 1864 onwards, after he had an operation for the removal of kidney stones. He resigned as an alderman in 1866, after serving only one year of his six-year term. After retiring as an alderman, Charles continued to comment on local and national elections and was reported in the local press as giving occasional speeches at Conservative club events as a senior member. 

Besides Charles’ involvement in local politics and in the formal administration of the town, he played a significant part in mutual aid societies, and charities. In an entry from April 1858, Charles listed the organisations for which he was an officer. The list included several charities: the St. John’s Female Friendly Society, St. John’s School Sick Society, Blackburn Philanthropic Burial Society and the Oddfellow’s Widow and Orphan’s Fund. His list also included two building societies, the Victoria and Provident. All these organisations were community-based, mutual aid societies which encouraged financial prudence. The building societies helped members buy property while the others provided benefits when a State social security system did not exist. The St. John’s Female Friendly Society was founded in 1834 and was based at the church. He became treasurer in 1842 before becoming secretary. As well as providing benefits for its members, it held an annual tea party on the anniversary of its creation, providing an element of sociability. The Blackburn Philanthropic Burial Society was established in 1840 to help members with the cost of funerals. Charles chaired meeting and sometimes administered the accounts. The Oddfellows played an important role in Charles’ life. The Oddfellows were a mixture of secret society, with rituals and passwords, and a mutual aid charity. Charles joined a lodge in 1840 then became a member of the committee, holding various offices. He also attended regional meetings as an officer. The order included a Widow and Orphan’s Society, for which Charles worked. Besides these charities, Charles worked for two relief funds at times of economic crises in the town. In 1847/8 Charles was a member of the committee of the Blackburn Relief Fund (10).  The fund provided relief, through subscriptions, for workers in mills that had stopped trading during the national economic crisis of 1847. Oddly, Charles did not record his involvement although he complained of a shortage of work in an entry from June 1847. He did record his involvement between 1862 and 1865 with the General Relief Committee that provided financial assistance and food to workers affected by the Cotton Famine during the American Civil War. Charles involvement began controversially when he had a letter published in the Times. Charles claimed his letter resulted in a large amount of subscriptions to the Relief Fund but his appeal for help from outside the town was not well received.

The foundation of Charles’ world view was his Christian faith. He was a practicing Anglican. The Tiplady family church was St. John’s, just to the north of the town centre. Charles’ first wife and their daughter, Maria Anne, were buried there. Between 1841 and 1851, the Rev. R. T. Wheeler was the perpetual curate. Charles admired Rev. Wheeler and provided detailed summaries of many of his sermons. Although Charles attended St. John’s, he was chosen as a sidesman at St. Mary’s, the parish church, in April 1841. St John’s congregation acted independently but the church remained under the parish church, with the vicar having overall responsibility for the church. After Wheeler left Blackburn, Charles ceased to attend St John’s regularly. The parish church became his main place of worship, although he did attend other churches that were built during the middle decades of the nineteenth century. He continued to give accounts of sermons but not with the frequency as those given by Wheeler. When he mentioned church attendance, his entries became brief. Charles’ faith was not just one of public practice but of deeply held personal beliefs. Occasionally, he wrote confession in his diary, vows to reform his behaviour and even his own prayers. Ritual and church attendance were essential, but it was personal faith that made the man.

The final major theme of his diary was death. Over the 34 years spanned by the diary, Charles recorded the deaths of over 300 people. Some were family, others were friends and acquaintances, but many were just known to Charles. Usually, he just recorded the name and age but sometimes he noted the cause of death and even made comments about the person, usually critical. As he became older, Charles included more deaths. This morbid interest in death was part of Charles view of life and can be interpreted as part of his Christian faith. Death was all around; life was short and could end suddenly so it was essential that a Christian should think of death and work toward the afterlife. It can also be seen as a reflection of the constant presence of death in rapidly developing industrial towns with overcrowding, squalor and the associated threat from diseases associated with such conditions.

Note on Editorial Method (relates to the pdf transcription and footnotes after each annual entry)
The text has been transcribed retaining the original spelling, grammar, and punctuation. Editorial interventions are in [square brackets]. These include expansion of some abbreviations, notes of words that could not be read and, most importantly, adding the year and dates of entries where Charles did not provide them. Page numbering follows that provided by Charles up to page 53. After that, page numbering is for the reader’s guidance only as newspaper clippings and other items not relevant to the text have been excluded. The text has been footnoted extensively drawing on a wide range of sources, which are included in the annotations.

​1.  Tiplady’s Blackburn, (Blackburn, 2001).
​2.  Robert Poole, ‘The Manchester Observer: Biography of a Radical Newspaper’, Bulletin of the John Ryland’s Library, Vol. 95, No. 1 (Spring 2019), pp. 36-41.
 3.  Edwin Holmes, ‘Newspaper History: Conclusion’, Blackburn Times, 29 April 1865.
 4.  Blackburn Standard, 21 October 1835.
 5.  Blackburn Standard, 10 May 1890.
 6.  William Alexander Abram, Blackburn Characters of a Past Generation (Blackburn, 1894), p. 209.
 7.  M. Cragoe, ‘The Great Reform Act and the Modernization of British Politics: The Impact of Conservative Associations, 1835-41’, Journal of British Studies, Vol. 47 (Jul., 2008), 581-603.
  8.  Blackburn Standard, 25 February 1835, 25 November 1835.
  9.  Blackburn Standard, 23 November 1836.
10.  Blackburn Standard, 19 January 1848.

David Hughes, Community History Volunteer, published January 2024.



This bibliography is drawn from the sources used in the footnotes to the text. It is divided into three sections: published primary sources, secondary sources, and online resources. Published primary sources include, in the first section, texts referenced by Tiplady and, in the second section, newspapers and periodicals that either Tiplady mentions, or contemporary reports used to provide additional details about subjects written about by Tiplady. The secondary sources are drawn from books, articles and websites used to provide additional details on matters recorded by Tiplady. The references to websites do not include the date accessed; this is included in the individual footnotes. Online resources include Findmypast and Lancashire OnLine Parish Clerk which were the two sources used for genealogical information. The other online resources were used to provide information for the footnotes. The two main sources used were the Oxford English Dictionary (OED), used to define obscure words and terminology, and the Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (ODNB) used to provide biographical details. The words defined and the biographies used are included in the footnotes. Additional details on the other online resources used can be found in the individual footnotes.

Published Primary Sources

Act for Improving the Streets and Public Places, and Erecting a Town Hall and Improving the Markets, in the Township of Blackburn in the County Palatine of Lancaster, June 1841
Brief View of the London Hibernian Society for Establishing Schools, and Circulating the Holy Scriptures in Ireland, A (London, 1837),
'Death the Leveller', Oxford Book of English Verse 1250-1918 New Edition, Sir Arthur Quiller-Couch (ed.) (Oxford, 1939)
Durham, William, Chronological Notes of the Town and Parish of Blackburn, from A.D. 448 to A.D. 1860, with census of 1851 and 1861, also a table of Distances (Blackburn, 1861)
Head, Sir George, A Home Tour Through the Manufacturing Districts of England in the Summer of 1835 (London, 1836)
History of the Expedition under the Command of Captains Lewis and Clark etc., Paul Allen (ed.) (Philadelphia, 1814)
Latrobe, Charles Joseph, The Rambler in North America: MDCCCXXXII-MDCCCXXXIII Vols. I & II (1835).
Pigot & Co.'s National Commercial Directory for 1828-9 etc (London & Manchester, 1828)
Pike, John Baxter, The Poor Man's Day; or, The Sabbath etc. (London, 1848[?])
Pope, Alexander, An Essay on Criticism (1711)
Post Office Directory of Westmoreland (London, 1858)
Slater's Royal National Directory etc. (Manchester, 1848)
Strickland, Jane Margaret, Adonijah: A Tale of Jewish Dispersion (London, 1856)
Two Books of Homilies Appointed to be Read in Churches, The, John Griffiths (ed.) (Oxford, 1859)
Venn, Henry, The Complete Duty of Man; or, a System of Doctrinal and Practical Christianity (London, 1763)

Newspapers and Periodical
Blackburn Standard
Blackburn Times
Bolton Chronicle
Bolton Evening News
Burnley Gazette
Chester Courant, and Anglo-Welsh Gazette
Herts Advertiser
Huddersfield Daily Chronicle
Ipswich Journal
Lancaster Gazette
Leeds Intelligencer
Liverpool Daily Post
London Daily News
London Evening Standard
London Gazette, The
Manchester Courier
Manchester Evening News
Manchester Times
Morning Advertiser
Preston Chronicle
Preston Herald
Richmond & Ripon Chronicle
Stamford Mercury
Times, The

Secondary Sources

'About the Inn', Kirkstone Pass Inn, https://www.kirkstonepassinn.com/about-2/
Abram, W. A., A History of Blackburn, Town and Parish (Blackburn, 1877)
Annesley, Cressida, Hoskin, Philippa, Archbishop Drummond's Visitation Returns 1764 III: Yorkshire S-Y (York, 2010)
Anson, Mike, Bholat, David, Kang, Miao, Rieder, Kilian and Thomas, Ryland, 'The Bank of England and central bank credit rationing during the crisis of 1847: frosted glass or raised eyebrows?' Bank of England Staff Working Paper, No. 794 (April 2019)
Ashton, John, Social England Under the Regency Vol. 1 (London, 1890)
'Ashton Park History', Visit Preston, https://www.visitpreston.com/welcome/preston-s-history/history-of-preston-s-parks/ashton-park-history
Badsey, Stephen, Guide to the Franco-Prussian War 1870-1871 (Oxford, 2003)
Baines, Edward, History of the County Palatinate and Duchy of Lancaster Vol. III (London, 1836)
Beattie, Derek, A History of Blackburn (Lancaster, 2007)
Beresford, Rachael, 'History of the Oddfellows', www.oddfellows.co.uk
Beckwith, Roger T., 'Essays and Reviews (1860)', Churchman, No. 108 Vol. 1 (Spring, 1994), pp. 48-58
Bilsborough, Norman, The Treasures of Lancashire (Manchester, 1989)
Chambers, W., Sketches Light and Descriptive (Edinburgh, 1866)
Clinical Infectious Diseases, 2nd Editions, David Schlossberg (ed.) (Cambridge, 2015)
Crockford’s Clerical Directory for 1874 (London, 1874)
Crosby, Alan, The History of Preston Guild 800 years of England's greatest carnival (Preston, 1991),
Dictionary of the Bible etc. Volume II Feign-Kinsman, James Hastings (ed.) (Edinburgh, 1911)
Dictionary of Music and Musicians, A (A.D. 1450-1889) etc. Vol. 1, Sir G. Groves (ed.) (London, 1900)
Eastwood, G. F., "Queen Elizabeth's" A New History of the Ancient Grammar School of Blackburn (Blackburn, 1967)
‘Edward Askew Sothern’, LinkFang, https://en.linkfang.org/wiki/Edward_Askew_Sothern
Engineering: An Illustrated Weekly Journal Vol. XLVI July to September 1888, W.H. Maw and J. Dredge (eds. (London, 1888)
English Dialect Dictionary Vol. II. D-G, Joseph Wright (ed.) (London, 1923)
English Dialect Dictionary Vol. IV. M-Q, Joseph Wright (ed.) (Oxford, 1905)
'Erythema multiforme', NHS Health A to Z, https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/erythema-multiforme/
‘Eyre and Spottiswoode', Grace's Guide to British Industrial History, https://www.gracesguide.co.uk/Eyre_and_Spottiswoode
Finn, Margot C., The Character of Credit: Personal Debt in English Culture, 1740-1914 (Cambridge, 2003)
Fisher, John R., 'British Physicians, Medical Science, and the Cattle Plague, 1865-66', Bulletin of the History of Medicine, Vol. 67, No. 4 (Winter 1993), pp. 652-4
Hawkins, Angus, Victorian Political Culture 'Habits of Heart & Mind' (Oxford, 2015),
Hilton, Boyd, A Mad, Bad, and Dangerous People? England 1783-1846 (Oxford, 2006)
Heselwood, Luke A., 'The Impact of Anglo-Chinese Relations on the Development of British Liberalism, 1842-1857', University of Manchester Ph.D. thesis (2016)
Holmes, Edwin, ‘Newspaper History: Conclusion’, Blackburn Times, 29 April 1865
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Online Resources

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David Hughes, Community History Volunteer, published January 2024.